- Six Steps of an Effective Researcher
~ outlines the 6 recommended steps of any research project
- Tips for Navigating the Internet
~ where to get started, recommended sites for starting your research
- Evaluating Resources
~ apply the CRAAP test to ensure you’re using good research sources
- Step-by-Step Guide for Searching InfoTrac
~ what to do after you’ve logged into the research database
- How to Properly Reference a Research Paper
~ parenthetical references, works cited, citation makers
- Boolean Searching
~ make your searches more effective with Boolean search strings
- Plagiarism Pitfalls
~ what to watch out for so you don’t plagiarize!
- Research Notes Worksheet
~ download this worksheet (save a copy to your folder) to help you organize your research
If you need help with your research, including ideas for topics, how to narrow down a topic, or what sources to start with, or how to cite your sources, ask Ms. Martin!
- Choose a topic—wisely
There’s nothing worse than having to write a paper on a topic in which you have absolutely no interest. Take some time to browse and find a topic that tweaks your interest. Online directories are perfect for this!
- Find general, background information
Once you have a sense of what you’d like to research, do some background reading. Encyclopedias, books, or Web sites at a lower reading level are perfect for this because you can skim through them very quickly. This reading will help you to…
- Focus and narrow your topic
You only have a limited number of pages to cover your topic. You need to focus on a single aspect of a topic, rather than trying to cover the whole topic in a single paper. The trick is to narrow your focus enough so you can discuss your topic in sufficient detail.
- Determine what KIND of information you need
Are you looking for statistics? Quotes from leading researchers? Historical information? What you are looking for will determine where you go to find it. One source does not fit all!
- Plan your search strategy
Map it out! What are you looking for? Where is the best place to look for this information? What are your key search terms?
Remember, the Internet is not your only source of information. Don’t forget, print resources (such as reference books, non-fiction books) and online research databases (such as InfoTrac or EBSCO)!!
- Tips for navigating the Internet
- How to evaluate Web sites and other resources
- Improve your searches using Boolean
- Parenthetical References (within your paper)
- Works Cited (your list of references – citations – at the end of the paper)
- Annotated Works Cited – evaluative or summary (use either MLA or APA – this example uses APA)
- Citing Photos
Why use parenthetical references?
- to indicate to your reader that you have used someone else’s words or ideas. This avoids plagiarizing, or using the work of others as your own;
- to let your reader know the source of your quotation or idea. Because the parenthetical reference follows the quotation or paraphrasing, it indicates your source immediately to the reader.
When do you use parenthetical references?
- for any piece of information, idea, quotation, etc. that is not your own;
When do you NOT have to use parenthetical references?
- popular sayings;
- facts which are common knowledge (e.g. the World Trade Center attacks happened on September 11th).
How do you use parenthetical references?
- information in the bracket is the first word(s) from your Works Cited entry – usually the author’s name – and the page number (if there is one);
- if there is no author, include as many words from the beginning of the reference to differentiate it from a similar entry
- for example, if you have 2 books with no author, one titled “Poverty and Homelessness in Canada” and another titled “Poverty in Canada” , your parenthetical references would be (Poverty and Homelessness 123) and (Poverty in Canada 123) respectively;
- web sites do not have page numbers so no number would appear in brackets.
- for APA format, do NOT use page numbers UNLESS it you have used a direct quote!
Where do you put parenthetical references?
- directly after the direct quote or fact or idea that you have used.
- “Employee morale was only one of Iacocca’s many worries” (Abodaher 318).
- Iacocca had many worries, including employee morale (Abodaher 318).
- NOTE: if you use a number of ideas, all from the same source, within one paragraph AND have put all the ideas into your own words, simply put the parenthetical reference at the end of the paragraph.
How to Create a Works Cited
- Sample MLA Works Cited (including List of Images Used)
- Sample APA Works Cited (including List of Images Used)
- You must cite (create a citation for) every resource (book, journal article, web site, etc) you use – and ONLY those sources you use (i.e. don’t add extra books to your Works Cited to make it look better – that’s a form of plagiarizing!)..
- Your list of sources must be in ALPHABETICAL order! (go by the beginning of each citation – author’s last name, title of book, etc.)
- Use hanging indents ~ the shortcut for creating a hanging indent in Microsoft Word is to select the text in the works cited and then hit: CTRL +T.
- Use appropriate formatting (MLA or APA – check with your teacher). The following are condensed (or “cheat sheet”) versions of the RCSS Style Guide:
- Citations in MLA format
- Citations APA format
- How to reference Figures & Tables: photos, images, maps, etc. (MLA or APA)
- Powerpoint presentation on how to cite photos